Migration d'étudiants en Afrique de l'Ouest - Quel rôle pour les pôles universitaires régionaux ? Perspectives des étudiants Togolais au Sénégal

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10900/71803
http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dspace-718039
http://dx.doi.org/10.15496/publikation-13215
Dokumentart: MasterThesis
Date: 2016
Source: Global Studies Working Papers of the Tübingen Institute of Geography ; 36
Language: French
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Geographie, Geoökologie, Geowissenschaft
DDC Classifikation: 550 - Earth sciences
Keywords: Student , Migration , Hochschule , Tertiärbereich , Hochschulbildung , Westafrika , Senegal , Togo , Dakar
Other Keywords: Studentische Migration
Student Migration
Higher Education
West Africa
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Abstract:

In times of globalization, higher education has become a highly internationalized sector, with universities competing to attract the best young talents from around the world. In view of increased demand for tertiary education paired with limited tertiary capacities in many African countries, more and more students from sub-Saharan Africa go abroad for higher education – they rate amongst most mobile students in the world. While immigration policies and cost factors limit their access to universities in developed countries, new centers of higher education emerge on the continent itself and increasingly shape the dynamics of student migration in the region. In this study, we examine the case of student migration from Togo to Senegal. We investigate the role of Dakar as a regional university center which is attracting more and more students from French-speaking Africa, and its potential to retain talents in the region and reduce brain drain to developed countries. Our research is based on a questionnaire with 102 Togolese students and graduates who study or have studied in Senegal. We find that Togolese students leave their country principally in search of better education quality, and their choice of destination is mainly influenced by institutions’ reputation and training courses offered, as well as cost and admission factors. Their future plans are not always fixed but rather shaped by the opportunities opened to them along the way. Our findings suggest that Dakar as a regional center of higher education plays a role of stepping stone for second migration towards Europe or America, but also presents a substitution for overseas destinations by providing education opportunities for those with limited funds. In this case, Dakar is permanent or temporary destination followed by return, thus helping to retain students in the region and stimulate regional brain circulation. We also find that most Togolese would like to return one day and contribute to the development of their home country, but feel restrained by the economic and employment conditions in their country of origin.

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