Structural Design and Analysis of Low-Density Parity-Check Codes and Systematic Repeat-Accumulate Codes

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Dokumentart: Dissertation
Date: 2015-06-24
Language: English
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Informatik
Advisor: Huber, Michael (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2015-06-12
DDC Classifikation: 004 - Data processing and computer science
510 - Mathematics
Keywords: Theoretische Informatik , Angewandte Informatik , Informatik , Codierungstheorie , Codierung , Mathematik , Angewandte Mathematik
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The discovery of two fundamental error-correcting code families, known as turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, has led to a revolution in coding theory and to a paradigm shift from traditional algebraic codes towards modern graph-based codes that can be decoded by iterative message passing algorithms. From then on, it has become a focal point of research to develop powerful LDPC and turbo-like codes. Besides the classical domain of randomly constructed codes, an alternative and competitive line of research is concerned with highly structured LDPC and turbo-like codes based on combinatorial designs. Such codes are typically characterized by high code rates already at small to moderate code lengths and good code properties such as the avoidance of harmful 4-cycles in the code's factor graph. Furthermore, their structure can usually be exploited for an efficient implementation, in particular, they can be encoded with low complexity as opposed to random-like codes. Hence, these codes are suitable for high-speed applications such as magnetic recording or optical communication. This thesis greatly contributes to the field of structured LDPC codes and systematic repeat-accumulate (sRA) codes as a subclass of turbo-like codes by presenting new combinatorial construction techniques and algebraic methods for an improved code design. More specifically, novel and infinite families of high-rate structured LDPC codes and sRA codes are presented based on balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs), which form a subclass of combinatorial designs. Besides of showing excellent error-correcting capabilites under iterative decoding, these codes can be implemented efficiently, since their inner structure enables low-complexity encoding and accelerated decoding algorithms. A further infinite series of structured LDPC codes is presented based on the notion of transversal designs, which form another subclass of combinatorial designs. By a proper configuration of these codes, they reveal an excellent decoding performance under iterative decoding, in particular, with very low error-floors. The approach for lowering these error-floors is threefold. First, a thorough analysis of the decoding failures is carried out, resulting in an extensive classification of so-called stopping sets and absorbing sets. These combinatorial entities are known to be the main cause of decoding failures in the error-floor region over the binary erasure channel (BEC) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, respectively. Second, the specific code structures are exploited in order to calculate conditions for the avoidance of the most harmful stopping and absorbing sets. Third, powerful design strategies are derived for the identification of those code instances with the best error-floor performances. The resulting codes can additionally be encoded with low complexity and thus are ideally suited for practical high-speed applications. Further investigations are carried out on the infinite family of structured LDPC codes based on finite geometries. It is known that these codes perform very well under iterative decoding and that their encoding can be achieved with low complexity. By combining the latest findings in the fields of finite geometries and combinatorial designs, we generate new theoretical insights about the decoding failures of such codes under iterative decoding. These examinations finally help to identify the geometric codes with the most beneficial error-correcting capabilities over the BEC.

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