Person Detection, Tracking and Identification by Mobile Robots Using RGB-D Images

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Dokumentart: Dissertation
Date: 2015-04
Language: English
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Informatik
Advisor: Zell, Andreas (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2015-04-09
DDC Classifikation: 004 - Data processing and computer science
Keywords: Bildverarbeitung , Maschinelles Sehen
Other Keywords:
Mobile Robot
Person Detection
Person Tracking
Face Recognition
License: Publishing license including print on demand
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This dissertation addresses the use of RGB-D images for six important tasks of mobile robots: face detection, face tracking, face pose estimation, face recognition, person de- tection and person tracking. These topics have widely been researched in recent years because they provide mobile robots with abilities necessary to communicate with humans in natural ways. The RGB-D images from a Microsoft Kinect cameras are expected to play an important role in improving both accuracy and computational costs of the proposed algorithms for mobile robots. We contribute some applications of the Microsoft Kinect camera for mobile robots and show their effectiveness by doing realistic experiments on our mobile robots. An important component for mobile robots to interact with humans in a natural way is real time multiple face detection. Various face detection algorithms for mobile robots have been proposed; however, almost all of them have not yet met the requirements of accuracy and speed to run in real time on a robot platform. In the scope of our re- search, we have developed a method of combining color and depth images provided by a Kinect camera and navigation information for face detection on mobile robots. We demonstrate several experiments with challenging datasets. Our results show that this method improves the accuracy and computational costs, and it runs in real time in indoor environments. Tracking faces in uncontrolled environments has still remained a challenging task be- cause the face as well as the background changes quickly over time and the face often moves through different illumination conditions. RGB-D images are beneficial for this task because the mobile robot can easily estimate the face size and improve the perfor- mance of face tracking in different distances between the mobile robot and the human. In this dissertation, we present a real time algorithm for mobile robots to track human faces accurately despite the fact that humans can move freely and far away from the camera or go through different illumination conditions in uncontrolled environments. We combine the algorithm of an adaptive correlation filter (David S. Bolme and Lui (2010)) with a Viola-Jones object detection (Viola and Jones (2001b)) to track the face. Furthermore,we introduce a new technique of face pose estimation, which is applied after tracking the face. On the tracked face, the algorithm of an adaptive correlation filter with a Viola-Jones object detection is also applied to reliably track the facial features including the two external eye corners and the nose. These facial features provide geometric cues to estimate the face pose robustly. We carefully analyze the accuracy of these approaches based on different datasets and show how they can robustly run on a mobile robot in uncontrolled environments. Both face tracking and face pose estimation play key roles as essential preprocessing steps for robust face recognition on mobile robots. The ability to recognize faces is a crucial element for human-robot interaction. Therefore, we pursue an approach for mobile robots to detect, track and recognize human faces accurately, even though they go through different illumination conditions. For the sake of improved accuracy, recognizing the tracked face is established by using an algorithm that combines local ternary patterns and collaborative representation based classification. This approach inherits the advantages of both collaborative representation based classification, which is fast and relatively accurate, and local ternary patterns, which is robust to misalignment of faces and complex illumination conditions. This combination enhances the efficiency of face recognition under different illumination and noisy conditions. Our method achieves high recognition rates on challenging face databases and can run in real time on mobile robots. An important application field of RGB-D images is person detection and tracking by mobile robots. Compared to classical RGB images, RGB-D images provide more depth information to locate humans more precisely and reliably. For this purpose, the mobile robot moves around in its environment and continuously detects and tracks people reliably, even when humans often change in a wide variety of poses, and are frequently occluded. We have improved the performance of face and upper body detection to enhance the efficiency of person detection in dealing with partial occlusions and changes in human poses. In order to handle higher challenges of complex changes of human poses and occlusions, we concurrently use a fast compressive tracker and a Kalman filter to track the detected humans. Experimental results on a challenging database show that our method achieves high performance and can run in real time on mobile robots.

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