Interdisziplinäre Studien zu den Kleinfunden der Siedlungen Udabno I-III (Ostgeorgien)

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Aufrufstatistik

URI: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-opus-69609
http://hdl.handle.net/10900/49922
Dokumentart: Dissertation
Date: 2012
Language: German
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Geographie, Geoökologie, Geowissenschaft
Advisor: Pernicka, Ernst (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2013-06-03
DDC Classifikation: 930 - History of ancient world to ca. 499
Keywords: Siedlungsarchäologie , Kleinfund , Kaukasus , Interdisziplinarität
Other Keywords:
Settlement archaeology , Small find , Caucasus , Interdisciplinary
License: Publishing license excluding print on demand
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Inhaltszusammenfassung:

Der Siedlungskomplex von Udabno in Ostgeorgien wurde in den Jahren 2000 bis 2007 intensiv archäologisch untersucht. Auf mehreren Bergkuppen befinden sich dicht beieinander drei Siedlungen in strategisch günstiger Lage. Die Untersuchungen von insgesamt 25 einphasigen und regelhaft, einheitlich orientierten, rechteckigen Grubenhäusern ergab eine zeitliche Einordnung der Besiedelung an den Übergang vom 2. zum 1. Jt. v. Chr. und damit in die Spätbronze-/Früheisenzeit. Mehr als 1400 stratigraphisch gesicherte Kleinfunde wurden während den Ausgrabungen dokumentiert. Das Spektrum umfasst zahlreiche Metall-, Knochen-, Keramik- und Steinartefakte. Aus der typologischen und funktionalen Zusammensetzung der Kleinfundinventare können verschiedene Aktivitätsbereiche innerhalb der Häuser und des gesamten Siedlungsplatzes abgeleitet werden. So beschränkten sich die Bewohner vor allem auf landwirtschaftliche Arbeiten wie die Viehzucht. Ebenso sind handwerkliche Tätigkeiten in den Siedlungen nachgewiesen. Funde wie zum Beispiel Spinnwirtel, Webkämme und Webgewichte belegen die Herstellung von Textilien in allen Siedlungsbereichen. In einzelnen Arealen fanden sich depotartige Niederlegungen von zum Teil noch im Herstellungsprozess befindlichen Schmuckstücken, wie Karneolperlen, Steinanhängern oder bronzenen Zierblechen. Innerhalb der Häuser dienten architektonische Strukturen (z. B. Lehmbänke) der Abgrenzung bestimmter Aktivitätsbereiche, so dass mit Hilfe der Kleinfunde Koch-, Arbeits-, Wohn- und Lagerbereiche lokalisiert werden können. Anhand von naturwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen an ausgewählten Funden – wie zum Beispiel Mahlsteinen aus ortsfremdem Material – werden zudem Verbindungen zu anderen Gebieten aufgezeigt.

Abstract:

This dissertation is based on the activities of the University of Tübingen at Troy and their implications for research related to Black Sea archaeology which goes back to the 1990s. Udabno is situated about 40 km from the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, in the East Georgian region of Kakheti. Intensive excavation work in three large settlements was started in 2002 and finally completed in 2007. The investigations at the areas of Udabno I–III revealed single-phase settlements, which date in the Late Bronze-/Early Iron Age, i.e. the transition from the second to first millennium BC. According a conflagration the majority of the houses were destroyed. The inventories in these burnt houses were therefore preserved in situ. Altogether, remains of 25 houses were discovered. The aim of this thesis was to examine more than 1400 small finds which were documented stratigraphically during the campaigns. A special focus involved drawing conclusions about the everyday life and organisation in the settlements and trading activities of its residents. A second part of this dissertation includes important information on the production technology of metals, and the reconstruction of trade routes, based on grinding stones, and obsidian, which was the result of archaeometrical investigations. Among other finds, a large number of stone artefacts were analysed, including mortars and pestles, grinders and rubbers, pounders, pendants, and carnelian beads. Beside these artefacts, the assemblage includes metal finds in the form of spearheads, knives, pins, rings, and punched sheets. Almost all the metal artefacts are made of arsenic- or tin-copper. Iron is used only sporadically. In addition, there are some small finds made of bone and pottery, like combs, and seals, and also some obsidian objects. As a result of the investigation of the small finds and their architectural context it can be said that there is no compelling evidence for specific differences within the settlement that indicate social stratification. It is probable that the development of social stratification was prevented by the short duration of the settlement activity in this region. The type and quality of the small finds point to a rather low level of prosperity. Animal husbandry seems to be the most important activity of the residents. Secondary evidence for agriculture includes remains of a threshing sledge as well as many (bread) stamps and grin-ding stones. The picture of the “agricultural” and “industrial” activities we have gained from our analyses shows us the daily lives of a rural population in the Late Bronze-/Early Iron Age which had individual trade links to the southeast of Georgia (Tsalka), northern Armenia and eastern Anatolia. This work can be seen as a contribution to the ongoing intensive research into the prehistory of a region which is characterised by major lacunae in our knowledge due to insufficient research in the 20th century. The results of the excavations in Udabno have revealed an interesting example of a characteristic rural settlement between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains.

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