Elterliche Hausaufgabenhilfe unter dem Blickwinkel sozialer Disparitäten: Eine Untersuchung pädagogisch-psychologischer Prozesse

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URI: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-opus-61934
http://hdl.handle.net/10900/47942
Dokumentart: Dissertation
Date: 2012
Language: German
Faculty: 6 Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Erziehungswissenschaft
Advisor: Trautwein, Ulrich Prof. Dr.
Day of Oral Examination: 2012-03-26
DDC Classifikation: 150 - Psychology
Keywords: Eltern , Hausaufgabe , Kind , Schule
Other Keywords: Hausaufgaben , Familiärer Hintergrund , Elterliches Engagement
Homework , Family background , Parental involvement
License: Publishing license excluding print on demand
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Inhaltszusammenfassung:

Das Verstehen der Entstehung sozialer Disparitäten des Kompetenzerwerbs im deutschen Schulsystem ist sowohl für die empirische Bildungsforschung als auch für die Öffentlichkeit von zentraler Bedeutung. Diesbezüglich herrscht mittlerweile Einigkeit darüber, dass die im Elternhaus stattfindenden Prozesse und Mechanismen identifiziert werden müssen, die zu unterschiedlichen Kompetenzen und Lernvoraussetzungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen führen. Vor diesem Hintergrund geht die Arbeit der Frage nach, ob die Entstehung der sozialen Disparitäten im deutschen Schulsystem zu einem Teil auf Unterschiede in der elterlichen Hausaufgabenhilfe zwischen sozial privilegierten und benachteiligten Familien zurückgeführt werden kann. Diesbezüglich wurden drei Fragestellungen aufgestellt: (1) Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen Merkmalen des sozialen Hintergrunds und elterlicher Hausaufgabenhilfe? (2) Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen elterlicher Hausaufgabenhilfe und dem Schulerfolg von Kindern und Jugendlichen? (3) Fungiert die elterliche Hausaufgabenhilfe als Mediator zwischen sozialem Hintergrund und Schulerfolg von Kindern und Jugendlichen? Zur Untersuchung dieser Fragestellungen wurden vier Teilstudien, in denen Schülerinnen und Schüler der 5. bis 8. Jahrgangsstufe über die Qualität der Hausaufgabenhilfe ihrer Eltern befragt wurden, durchgeführt. Obwohl die Qualität der elterlichen Hausaufgabenhilfe sowohl mit einzelnen Indikatoren des sozialen Hintergrunds als auch mit dem Schulerfolg von Schülerinnen und Schülern zusammenhing, ließen sich keine ausreichenden empirischen Belegen für die Annahme finden, dass Kinder und Jugendliche aus sozial schwächeren Familien aufgrund qualitativ niedrigerer Hausaufgabenhilfe ihrer Eltern gegenüber Kindern und Jugendlichen aus sozial besser gestellten Familien benachteiligt sind. Implikationen der Arbeit für zukünftige Studien zur Untersuchung der Entstehung sozialer Disparitäten werden diskutiert.

Abstract:

Understanding the origin of social disparities in educational achievement is of significance for both educational research and the public. In this regard, the family processes and mechanisms underlying the association between family background and educational achievement need to be identified. One widespread belief is that children from privileged families are at an advantage thanks to parental help with homework. Accordingly, concerns have been raised that parents with lower educational backgrounds are not capable of providing effective homework help, which may lead to educational inequalities. The present dissertation aims at investigating whether differences in the quality of parental homework involvement lead to educational inequalities. Three specific research questions were examined: (1) Is parental homework involvement associated with family background? (2) Is parental homework involvement associated with educational outcomes? (3) Does parental homework involvement mediate the relationship between family background and educational outcomes? In order to test these research questions, four studies were conducted, which all focused on the quality of parental homework involvement. Study 1 focused on the distinction between the quality and the quantity of parental homework involvement with respect to the association with family background on the one hand and educational outcomes on the other hand. Data from 1,687 sixth graders from Switzerland were analyzed. While also examining the relationship between parental homework involvement and family background as well as educational outcomes, the focus of Study 2 was put on the quality of parental help with homework. Alongside family background variables, a wide range of other predictors such as children’s sex, their age as well as their prior achievement and learning behavior were examined using data from a representative sample of 5043 fifth and eighth graders in the German states of Baden-Württemberg and Saxony. In addition to investigating the relationship between the quality of parental homework involvement and family background as well as educational outcomes, Study 3 tested if parental homework involvement serves as a mediator of the relationship between family background and educational outcomes. Data from 489 eighth graders from Berlin were analyzed. Utilizing two different data sets, Study 4 also investigated whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes. The first dataset included 1270 eighth graders from Berlin, the second dataset consisted of 1911 eighth graders from Switzerland. With respect to the first research question regarding the association between family background and parental homework involvement, small to moderate associations were found in all four studies. However, even though parents from privileged backgrounds showed more positive forms of parental homework involvement, they also showed more intrusive and controlling behaviors. Therefore, one cannot conclude that children from privileged backgrounds receive qualitatively higher help with homework. Regarding the second research question dealing with the association between the quality of parental homework involvement and educational outcomes, a very consistent pattern emerged across all studies conducted. Positive associations with educational outcomes were found for the following dimensions of parental help with homework: emotional support and autonomy support of parents, parental interest in children’s school work, structure in the homework process as well as students’ perceptions of their parents’ competence to help with homework. Negative associations with educational outcomes were revealed for intrusive and controlling parental behaviors during the homework process as well as conflict between parents and students about homework. These associations were found for all educational outcomes examined. In the third and guiding research question of this dissertation, it was investigated whether parental homework involvement serves as a mediator between family background and educational outcomes. Even though the assumption that children from privileged backgrounds are better at school because their parents are more capable of providing effective homework help is widespread, no empirical support for this assumption could be established based on the analyses conducted in Study 3 and 4.

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