Neural Scene Representations for 3D Reconstruction and Generative Modeling

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10900/148183
http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dspace-1481836
http://dx.doi.org/10.15496/publikation-89523
Dokumentart: PhDThesis
Date: 2023-11-28
Language: English
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Informatik
Advisor: Geiger, Andreas (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2023-09-29
DDC Classifikation: 004 - Data processing and computer science
Keywords: Maschinelles Sehen , Maschinelles Lernen
Other Keywords:
3d computer vision
neural scene representations
neural fields
License: http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/doku/lic_mit_pod.php?la=de http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/doku/lic_mit_pod.php?la=en
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Abstract:

With the increasing technologization of society, we use machines for more and more complex tasks, ranging from driving assistance to video conferencing, to exploring planets. The scene representation, i.e., how sensory data is converted to compact descriptions of the environment, is a fundamental property for enabling the success but also the safety of such systems. A promising approach for developing robust, adaptive, and powerful scene representations are learning-based systems that can adapt themselves from observations. Indeed, deep learning has revolutionized computer vision in recent years. In particular, better model architectures, large amounts of training data, and more powerful computing devices enabled deep learning systems with unprecedented performance, and they now set the state-of-the-art in many benchmarks, ranging from image classification, to object detection, to semantic segmentation. Despite these successes, the way these systems operate is still fundamentally different from human cognition. In particular, most approaches operate in the 2D domain, while humans understand that images are projections of the three-dimensional world. In addition, they often do not follow a compositional understanding of scenes, which is fundamental to human reasoning. In this thesis, our goal is to develop scene representations that enable autonomous agents to navigate and act robustly and safely in complex environments while reasoning compositionally in 3D. To this end, we first propose a novel output representation for deep learning-based 3D reconstruction and generative modeling. We find that, compared to previous representations, our neural field-based approach does not require 3D space to be discretized achieving reconstructions at arbitrary resolution with a constant memory footprint. Next, we develop a differentiable rendering technique to infer these neural field-based 3D shape and texture representations from 2D observations and find that this allows us to scale to more complex, real-world scenarios. Subsequently, we combine our novel 3D shape representation with a spatially and temporally continuous vector field to model non-rigid shapes in motion. We observe that our novel 4D representation can be used for various discriminative and generative tasks, ranging from 4D reconstruction to 4D interpolation, to motion transfer. Finally, we develop an object-centric generative model that can generate 3D scenes in a compositional manner and that allows for photorealistic renderings of generated scenes. We find that our model not only improves image fidelity but also enables more controllable scene generation and image synthesis than prior work while training only from raw, unposed image collections.

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