Proboscidea-Homo interactions in open-air localities during the Early and Middle Pleistocene of western Eurasia: a palaeontological and archaeolocigal perspective

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URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10900/114224
http://dx.doi.org/10.15496/publikation-55599
http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dspace-1142247
Dokumentart: Buch (einzelnes Kapitel)
Date: 2021-04-14
Source: Tuebingen Paleoanthropology Book Series – Contributions in Paleoanthropology Band 1: Human-elephant interactions: from past to present
Language: English
Faculty: Tuebingen Paleoanthropology Book Series – Contributions in Paleoanthropology Band 1: Human-elephant interactions: from past to present
Other Keywords: Palaeoloxodon
Mammuthus
carnivore guild
lithic technology
human evolution
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Inhaltszusammenfassung:

In recent years, a significant number of Pleistocene localities with evidence of proboscidean exploita- tion by humans has been discovered, substantial- ly enriching our knowledge on Homo subsistence strategies and megafauna acquisition. In this study, we provide a synthesis of the evidence for Pro- boscidea-Homo interactions in Early and Middle Pleistocene open-air sites of western Eurasia with direct (e.g., presence of cut marks, proboscidean bone artifacts, fractures for marrow extraction) and indirect (e.g., association and refitting of lithic ar- tifacts, use-wear analysis) evidence of exploitation. Sex and ontogenetic age of butchered proboscide- ans are recorded, in order to assess possible human preferences. Furthermore, we investigate the role of large carnivores focusing on important renew- als in the carnivore guilds, and their significance in terms of carrion availability for scavenging and human-carnivore competition for access to food resources. By applying an ecomorphological/be- havioral approach, we examine the large carnivore community structure and dynamics, with empha- sis in the hunting strategies of large predators. Ad- ditionally, we aim to infer their possible role in the changes of early human subsistence strategies fo- cusing on proboscidean acquisition, and to explore the role of humans within the predatory guild. The ecological adaptations of the two common Middle Pleistocene proboscideans in Europe, the Europe- an straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus and the steppe mammoth Mammuthus trogonthe- rii, are also evaluated. Finally, we discuss various aspects of the Homo bio-cultural evolution during the period under study, including developments in material culture and relevant inferences about hu- man social behavior.

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