Like a bridge over troubled water – Measuring self-regulation deficits in school children via ambulatory assessment and intervening by means of mental contrasting and if-then plans

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Dokumentart: PhDThesis
Date: 2022-07-31
Language: German
Faculty: 7 Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Department: Psychologie
Advisor: Gawrilow, Caterina (Prof. Dr.)
Day of Oral Examination: 2020-07-31
DDC Classifikation: 150 - Psychology
Keywords: Selbstregulation , Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Syndrom
Other Keywords: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS)
Ambulantes Assessement
Wenn-Dann Plan
Mentales Kontrastieren mit Implementation Intentions (MCII / WOOP)
Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII / WOOP)
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Ambulatory assessment
if-then plans
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Self-regulation is a significant ability with important (positive) implications in the course of a lifetime (Mischel et al., 1988). Due to its lifelong relevance, this ability to strive for goals in the long-term, to inhibit non-intended actions and to act in a situationally appropriate manner (Guderjahn et al., 2013; Wirth et al., 2015) is being researched in a wide range of areas, for example in developmental and motivational psychology (e.g. Suchodoletz et al., 2014; Oettingen & Gollwitzer, 2015c). Hence, on the one hand self-regulation is a predictor of academic success (Blair, 2002), early self-regulation deficits, on the other hand, can cause difficulties at school (Blair & Razza, 2007). Self-regulation deficits are particularly at the root of ADHD (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Rueda et al., 2004), which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Recent studies carrying out daily measurements of constructs using portable devices, called ambulatory assessment (Bugl et al., 2015), show that children and adolescents exhibit daily variations in their ADHD symptoms (Schmid et al., 2016). Therefore, ADHD and its symptoms should be viewed as a dimensional construct (Shaw et al., 2011). In order to alleviate in particular the extreme of high symptom expression, a modification with support of a training to improve self-regulation for daily use is recommended. Self-regulation deficits can be positively altered by short-term training, for example Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII; Adriaanse et al., 2010; Gawrilow, Schmitt, & Rauch, 2011). Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions is a mental strategy that supports individuals in formulating and setting their goals through mental contrasting and – through a final if-then plan – in implementing goal-oriented behaviour changes (Gollwitzer, 1999; Oettingen & Gollwitzer, 2010). The thereby induced reduction of self-regulation deficits can lead to long-term improvements in academic and social areas (Reid et al., 2005; Tangney et al., 2004). The aim of this thesis is to present an existing self-regulation strategy, especially with regard to the school context, and to measure self-regulation in the everyday life (applying an ambulatory assessment; see Bugl et al., 2015) of children and adolescents. These illustrations are supplemented by an empirical study in which school children are taught a self-regulation strategy and its connection with ADHD symptoms is researched. Finally, this training will be examined empirically additionally with an increased focus on the dimensionality of ADHD symptoms.

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